In 2020, using single cell RNA sequencing, Oxford cancer researchers made a breakthrough by identifying new types of Fallopian tube cells that are the cells of origin for the majority of ovarian cancers. They showed that that the types of these newly-discovered non-cancer cells are “mirrored” into different ovarian cancer subtypes. These subtypes correlated well with survival.
Discovering the new subtypes of cells have allowed Oxford researchers to classify and categorise tumours based on their origin in the body, and determine which ones can lead to more severe cancer outcomes – an approach which has been dubbed the ‘Oxford Classification of Carcinoma of the Ovary’ or ‘Oxford Classic’ for short. The Oxford Classic will provide much more accurate predictions for disease outcome in patients, as well as helping researchers to develop targeted therapies for each type of cancer
Professor Ahmed Ahmed, Nuffield Department of Women’s and Reproductive Health and originator of the Oxford Classic, has how published a paper in collaboration with Imperial College, demonstrating the applications of the Oxford Classic approach. As well as shedding light on some previously unknown information about ovarian cancers.
Professor Ahmed says:
“Our group is very excited that we were able to confirm the predictive role of the Oxford Classic. This work highlights that it is now important to identify new personalised therapies for the Oxford Classic-defined EMT-high ovarian cancer subtype. The finding that there is a strong connection with abundant M2 Macrophages already offers a good hint as to where we could find good treatment options for patients with this type”.
Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is the most common cancer subtype, but is challenging to classify and predict its prognosis. Using the Oxford Classic, researchers found that specific SOC subtypes, known as EMT-high types, were associated with a lower survival rate in serous ovarian cancer patients.
Professor Christina Fotopoulou of Imperial College London says:
“This has been a very fruitful collaboration between two major UK gynaecological cancer centres; Oxford and Imperial College. We have generated very promising results towards an individualisation of care of our ovarian cancer patients. Our data will help clinicians to stratify patients to the right treatment pathway based on features of tumour biology of their disease. I hope we can continue to work together on that basis and expand and validate our data further also on a larger scale.”
EMT stands for epithelial-mesenchymal transition, it is the process by which epithelial cells change and become more mobile. This mobility provides the cells with the opportunity to spread leading to cancer progression. EMT-high subtypes are tumours that have a high number of cancer cells with greater mobility.
Researchers also found that EMT-high subtypes were associated with abundance of a type of immune cells called M2 macrophage. M2 macrophages possess immunosuppressive properties, and can lead to poorer treatment responses if they are found in high quantities within a tumour. It has previously been observed that patients with high-EMT tumours had a poor immune response. This study confirms that the EMT-high subtypes are associated with an immunosuppressive environment (and so poor patient responses to treatment) due to their association with more M2 macrophages – a link that has not previously been identified.
Whether M2 macrophages induce the EMT level or the EMT level results in higher levels of M2 macrophages will be an important question to be addressed by Prof Ahmed’s future work. However, this study has demonstrated the Oxford Classic’s strong ability to predict a patient’s prognosis.
Classifying the EMT status of a tumour, using the Oxford Classic, could potentially become a valuable part of future cancer stratification methods. This will ensure that appropriate treatment methods and attention are given to patients with a poorer overall prognosis.
Ovarian Cancer Action’s CEO, Cary Wakefield, says
“While other cancers have achieved major improvements in treatment outcomes, ovarian cancer continues to go unrecognised, underfunded, and misdiagnosed. The Oxford classic is an exciting breakthrough that will help to identify new treatment options for ovarian cancers that have a lower chance of survival. Funding important research like this will bring us closer towards a shared goal of more women surviving ovarian cancer”.
About the study
This study was co-led by Prof Ahmed Ahmed of the University of Oxford and Prof Christina Fotopoulou of Imperial College. It was funded by Ovarian Cancer Action, CRUK Oxford Centre and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre.
This study has demonstrated the potential of the Oxford Classic to:
- Accurately classify types of serous ovarian cancers
- Identify populations of cancer cells that have poorer prognoses (such as EMT high cancers)
Ahmed Ahmed is a Professor of Gynaecological Oncology at the Nuffield Department of Women’s & Reproductive Health at the University of Oxford and a Consultant Gynaecological Oncology Surgeon at the Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre. His work focuses on surgical, medical and fundamental research into ovarian cancer, its early detection, treatment and screening.
Read the fully study here: http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2021/01/12/1078-0432.CCR-20-2782